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Communication and Feedback
Strategies in Tablet Form

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Table 2: Feedback table derived from Ferreira, Moore and Mellish (2007), adapted and employed in analyzing triadic scaffolds in the split page analysis form (may apply to teacher and/or learner(s).

Table 1: Teacher and learner communication strategies as described by Dornyei (1995), adapted and employed in analyzing triadic scaffolds in the split-page analysis form.

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Strategy

Definition

Example

Avoidance or Reduction Strategies

1

Message abandonment

leaving a message unfinished because of language difficulties

speakers change the subject when they get frustrated

2

Topic avoidance

avoiding topic areas or concepts which pose language difficulties.

speakers are not comfortable

discussing topics such as death or taxes.

Achievement or Compensatory Strategies

3

Circumlocution

 

describing or exemplifying the target object or action

 the thing  you open bottles with for "corkscrew"

4

Approximation

 

using an alternative term which expresses the meaning of the target lexical item as closely as possible

ship for sail boat

5

Use of all-purpose words

 

extending a general, empty lexical item to contexts where specific words are lacking

the overuse of thing, stuff, make, do, as well as using words like, what-do-you-call-it

6

Word-coinage

 

creating a nonexisting L2 word based on a supposed rule

vegetarianist  for vegetarian

7

Use of nonlinguistic means

mime, gesture, facial expression, or sound imitation

pointing to show the way, a sigh, a smile, the finger

8

Literal translation

translating literally a lexical item, an idiom, a compound word or structure from L1 to L2

"Got sem chu-ee" (Korean) means "The wind is jealous of the flowers" in English

9

Foreignizing

using an L1 word by adjusting it to L2 phonologically (i.e., with an L2 pronunciation) and/or morphologically

I like Thai Kwon Doo"

"We sushied yesterday"

10

Code switching

using words from your own or other languages while conversing in L2

"Do you prefer chu-toro or lean maguro?"

11

Appeal for help

 

turning to the conversation partner for help either directly or indirectly

directly: What do you call . . . ? or

indirectly: rising intonation, pause, eye contact, puzzled expression

Stalling or Time-gaining Strategies

12

Use of fillers/hesitation

devices

using filling words or gambits to fill pauses and to gain time to think

"well, now let me see", "as a matter of fact", or "Uh"

#

Term

Definition

Original examples provided by the author of this paper

Forms of positive feedback:

1

Repetition:

 

The teacher repeats the

studentí»s correct answer.

=Student: "I went shopping."

=Teacher: "Oh, you went shopping...í▒...

 

a form of agreement

2

Rephrasing:

 

The teacher accepts the studentí»s answer but aims to expand the studentí»s knowledge, to polish the utterance structure, or to show a new structure which rephrases the answer given by the student using different words, and in some cases, adds new information.

=S: "Not at school yesterday..."

=T: "Oh, you stayed home from school yesterday."

 

Forms of negative/corrective feedback as Giving-Answer Strategies (GAS):

3

Repetition:

 

The teacher repeats the error or the portion of the learnerí»s phrase containing the error, using stress or rising intonation to focus the studentí»s attention on the problematic part

of the utterance.

=S: "I Goed to the market."

=T: "You goed there."

 

a mirroring of  error with expressions of disbelief (intonation, facial expressions, gestures, eye contact)

4

Recast:

 

Reformulation of all or part of the studentí»s answer, providing the target form.

 

=S: "The supermarket has many fried chickens."

= T: "Wow... It has lots of fried chicken..."

5

Explicit correction:

 

The teacher provides the correct target form. This differs from recast because the teacher directly corrects the error without rephrasing or reformulating the studentí»s answer.

=S: "We go last night..."

=T: "went... went last night"

6

Give answer:

 

Feedback used in cases when the student does not know or is unsure of the answer.

=S: "There was lots of rain and. . ." (Student does not know how to say 'thunder' or 'lightning').

=T: "Thunder and Lightning" (Teacher completes the answer ).

Forms of negative/corrective feedback as Prompting-Answer Strategies (PAS):

7

Meta-linguistic cues:

 

The teacher provides information or asks questions regarding the correctness of the studentí»s utterance, without explicitly providing the target form.

=S: "Do you see me yesterday?"

=T: "You have to use the past tense with 'yesterday'."

8

Clarification requests:

 

These are questions intended to indicate to the student that his/her answer has been misunderstood due to a student error, or that the utterance is ill-formed in some way and that a  repetition or reformulation is required. Clarification requests often include phrases such as "Pardon me", "What?" or "What do you mean?".

= S: "I have a sick leg."

=T: "What do you mean?"

9

Elicitation:

The teacher encourages the student to give the correct form by pausing to allow the student to complete the teacherí»s utterance, by asking the student to reformulate the utterance, or by asking questions to elicit the correct answer, such as "How do we say that in Spanish?"

=T: "What do you do after breakfast?"

=S: Student gestures washing her face...

=T: "How do you say that in English?"