Triadic interaction and motivation behavior types operationalized for analyses:
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This is B2-1...
by Spencer Brockley
An Effective, Concise, and Organized Approach to English Language Learning ~ Phonics to Fluency in a Flash!
Class: ____B2-1____ Time of Interaction (Video): ___1minute 16 seconds___ Form #___06____ File____V3-1 (Module 3)____
Notes: The file used in this clip is an activity that presents simple present verbs with questions and answers that pertain to the cartoon pictures. In this activity, the students first answer a closed question (as shown on the screen) and then are asked an open question as created and posed by the teacher. The open question is limited in this excerpt (see 'Additional Note' at the bottom of this form).
Transcription, triadic interaction and notes on motivation behavior (Student: "A, B, C," etc... and Teacher "T")
01T: Listen, please. (trying to gather students' attention, gesturing with hand to ear)
02A: Listen, no. (covers her ears)
03T: You guys can listen, too. (the boys team was talking among themselves)
05T: Who... (beginning an open question. See 'Notes' above)
06A: Nu-ga (Who) (Student offers translation into Korean)
07T: Who do you meet (putting hands together to gesture ¡®meet¡¯)
08A: At school. (student assists teacher in completing the question)
09T: At school. (acknowledging student¡¯s assistance with a gesture)
10A: I meet... at school... (taking a turn)
11T: I¡¯d like a name. (interrupts to clarify parameters of an acceptable answer)
12A: I meet at...
13T: (facial expression signals an ungrammatical/unacceptable answer)
14A: I meet at school...
15T: (waves finger at student C and whistles because she is dozing off)
16A: For... I meet at school. (student is becoming confused)
17T: You wannna say: "Teacher, question one more time please". (attempting to reiterate the question and to bring focus on form)
18D: I volunteer. (raises arm in an attempt to take a turn)
19E: One more time, please. (wants to hear the question again)
20T: O.K. Who do you meet...
21D: I... (wishes to take a turn)
22T: ...at school? ...At school. (gestures as a hint to indicate that the phrase "at school" belongs at the back of the sentence)
23A: I meet...
24E: (mentions a student¡¯s name to assist student A)
25D: I volunteer! (again, asserting desire to take a turn)
26A: (stands up and consults student E)
27T: Just wait. Give them one chance. (addressing and gesturing to the impatient student D and the boys team)
28B: O.K., O.K.
29D: Yes, yes.
30A: I meet my friends at school.
31T: (gestures and facial expression indicate the teacher is looking for a different answer) Note: though the sentence is grammatically correct, this was an online decision made by the teacher. Right or wrong, having taught this group for more than two years, the teacher wanted an answer beyond the bounds of the obvious, "my friends")
32F: Rock, scissor, paper. (wants the teacher to challenge student A¡¯s response)
33T: But, she wanted to say the friend¡¯s name (referring to student E¡¯s assist in line 24)
34E: I-rum (name) (once again assisting student A)
35A: I meet Shin Young-jun at school. (now assisting student E with the correct answer)
36E: I meet at...?
37F: Rock, scissor, paper. (wants the teacher to challenge the girl¡¯s team¡¯s response)
38A: At... at a-ni-yo (not 'at') (slaps student E¡¯s shoulder in correction)
39E: I meet Shin Young-jun at school.
40T: (gestures and facial expression signal a correct answer)
00: ROC: The image is of a boy going to school. The closed question ("Where does he go everyday?") has just been answered (¡°He goes to school.¡±). In the image, the boy is waving to a friend who stands at the school¡¯s entrance. This image is drawn upon to activate attention to the open question: ¡°Who do you meet at school?¡±
01T: T tries to gather learners¡¯ attention ("Listen, please¡±) to bring the class to order.
02A: LCS: Use of all-purpose words. In this case, the 'no' in "Listen, no" is a short cut for negative responses for many EFL learners. Also, LCS: Nonlinguistic means. Learner A covers her ears.
03T: Again, T tries to gather learners¡¯ attention ("You guys can listen, too").
05T: TFS (PAS): Elicitation (¡°Who...¡±) pausing to engage learners¡¯ attention.
06A: LCS: Code-switching. Learner A offers translation into Korean ('Nu-gu' = 'Who').
07T: TFS (PAS): Elicitation ("Who do you meet...") once again pausing to engage learners¡¯ attention and TCS: Nonlinguistic means (T puts hands together to gesture 'meet').
08A: LFS (GAS): Give answer ("At school"). Learner A assists teacher in completing the question.
ROC: Perhaps the image on the screen (the boy going to school) helped Learner A with the question¡¯s completion.
09T: TFS (PF): Repetition ("At school"). TCS: Nonlinguistic means. T acknowledges Learner A¡¯s assistance with a gesture as well.
12A/13T: TCS: Nonlinguistic means. T¡¯s facial expression signals an ungrammatical/unacceptable answer.
17T: TFS (PAS): Elicitation. T wants learners to ask for the question (¡°Who do you meet at school?¡±) one more time.
19E: LFS (PF): Repetition ("One more time, please"). Learner E wishes to hear the question again, following the T¡¯s elicitation (17T).
20T/22T: TFS (PAS): Elicitation again. ("O.K.
Who do you meet... at school? ...At school"). TCS: Nonlinguistic means. T gestures to indicate that the phrase ¡®at school¡¯ belongs at the back of the sentence.
30A/31T: TCS: Nonlinguistic means. Though Learner A¡¯s response is grammatically correct ("I meet my friends at school"), T uses gestures and facial expressions to indicate he is looking for a different answer, i.e., a name.
33T: TCS: Circumlocution. T refers back to student E¡¯s assist in line 24 when she mentioned a friend¡¯s name.
34E: LCS: Code-switching ('I-rum' = 'Name'). Learner E once again assisting A.
35A: LFS (GAS): Give answer. ("I meet Shin Young-jun at school"). Student E must produce the correct answer to get the points for her team. Learner A has come up with the correct form and now assists learner E.
36E: LFS (PAS): Clarification request ("I meet at...?").
38A: LFS (GAS): Explicit correction. Learner A makes E aware of the syntactic slip up and uses an LCS as a code switch ("At... at a-ni-yo" = "Not at"). Also, an LCS: Nonlinguistic means. Learner A slaps learner E¡¯s shoulder to inspire a correction.
39E/40T: TCS: Nonlinguistic means. T¡¯s gestures and facial expression signal a correct answer.
ROI: In this case, the image on the screen isn¡¯t central to the meaning-making; rather, it acts as a kind of anchor or focus for the question (¡°Who do you meet at school?¡±). The result of this interaction is that various forms of assistance (both teacher and learner) lead up to a form-meaning mapping as indicated in the final 'correct' or elicited answer. There is a consistent level of learner-initiated feedback and communication activity while the answer to the open question is being negotiated.
02A: 2) introjected regulation. "Listen, no" is learner A¡¯s reaction to T¡¯s entreaty and she covers her ears as a joke, a jest, something funny. She does so in a playful manner, considering the teacher's previous classes with and experience with this learner, as well as her body language, but her facial expressions could not be recorded.
06A: 4) integrated regulation. Learner A offers translation into Korean ('Nu-gu' = 'Who').
08A: 2) introjected regulation: Learner A finishes the open question ("...at school") for a correct response.
10A ~14A: 2) introjected regulation: A attempts to answer the question correctly.
15T: 0) amotivation: Learner C is napping.
16A: 1) external regulation. Learner A reacts to the T¡¯s expressions that her attempts are off the mark.
17T/19E: 3) identified regulation: Following T¡¯s lead, Learner E seeks clarification ("One more time, please").
18D: 2) introjected regulation. 'Volunteering' is a common form of motivation behavior, and it occurs in most of the excerpts in this study. It has been suggested (in excerpt B-1, for example) that there may be a hint of 5) intrinsic motivation: "There is a quality of 'whole-heartedness' but little cognitive effort."
23A: 2) introjected regulation: A again attempts to answer the question correctly.
24E: 4) integrated regulation: Learner E assists Learner A by mentioning a student¡¯s name (T¡¯s request: 11T: "I¡¯d like a name").
25D as well as 18D and 21D: 1) external regulation: Learner D reacts to the other teams failed attempts and positions himself to take a turn.
26A: 4) integrated regulation: Learners A and E are working cooperatively.
27T ~ 29D: 1) external regulation: The boys team grows impatient and wants to take a turn.
30A: 2) introjected regulation: Learner A¡¯s answer is grammatically correct, but not the answer T is looking for
32F: 1) external regulation: Learner F wants the T to challenge student A¡¯s response ("Rock, scissor, paper").
34E: 4) integrated regulation: Learner E once again assists A ('I-rum' = 'name').
35A: 2) introjected regulation: Now learner A assists learner E ("I meet Shin Young-jun at school"). Learner E is the one who must produce the answer correctly as it is her turn in the game.
36E: 2) introjected regulation: Learner E attempts an answer (¡°I meet at...?¡±) and 4) integrated regulation: Seeks assistance from her teammates.
37F: 1) external regulation: Learner F once again wants the T to challenge student A¡¯s response ("Rock, scissor, paper").
38A: 4) integrated regulation and 5) intrinsic motivation: Learner A is participating whole-heartedly at this point ("At... at a-ni-yo" = "At ... not at"). She becomes physical in a playful manner (slaps student E¡¯s shoulder in correction).
39E: 2) introjected regulation: Learner E succeeds in answering the question.